NCBI Bookshelf. Office on Smoking and Health US. This chapter summarizes trends and patterns of cigarette smoking and use of other tobacco products among women and girls and updates and expands the information in previous reports of the Surgeon General, particularly the report titled, The Health Consequences of Smoking for Women U. This report primarily uses U. In the case of international smoking patterns, data are provided by the World Health Organization WHO and international surveys. Gender-specific differences are discussed to the extent that data exist. Sections of this chapter cover the prevalence of cigarette smoking among women and girls of different age groups; smoking during pregnancy; smoking initiation; nicotine dependence; smoking cessation; other tobacco use; exposure to environmental tobacco smoke; the relationship of smoking to body weight, other drug use, and mental health; and international trends in smoking prevalence. Young women and pregnant women are included in the estimates of smoking prevalence and cessation among women overall, but separate sections address smoking prevalence and cessation among these groups of women because they represent important populations for specific interventions. National data from several sources were analyzed for this report.
Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General.
Teens from collectivistic cultures also more swayed by peers than those in individualistic cultures
Smoking among young people has become increasingly gendered. In several countries, smoking among adolescent girls is now higher than among adolescent boys. However, we have only a limited understanding of the reasons behind these gender patterns. This paper reports the findings from a qualitative study which used single-sex focus groups to explore the gendered nature of the meaning and function of smoking among Scottish to year old smokers. The study found that young people were ambivalent about their smoking but that this was somewhat different for boys and girls. These differences related to their social worlds, pattern of social relationships, interests, activities and concerns, the meanings they attached to smoking and the role smoking played in dealing with the everyday experience of being a boy or girl in their mid-teens. For example, boys were concerned about the impact of smoking on their fitness and sport, whereas girls were more concerned about the negative aesthetic effects such as their clothes and bodies smelling of smoke. The implications for programmes aimed at reducing smoking among young people, particularly the need for more gender-sensitive approaches, are discussed.
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F orget BlackBerrys or wedges: the most desirable accessory for huge numbers of adolescent girls today is a cigarette. The gap has narrowed since but in girls are still more likely to smoke than boys. There has long been a synergy between the changing self-image of girls and the wiles of the tobacco industry. Smoking was described by one team of researchers as a way in which some adolescent girls express their resistance to the "good girl" feminine identity.
The history of women's smoking behaviour is one of changing normative definitions. Recent trends have been explained in terms of the symbolic value of smoking, representing for women freedom and independence. This view is emphasised by advertising. However, other evidence suggests the continued existence of an older, more negative cultural stereotype. A two-part study of young women undergoing professional training for nursing and teaching throws some light on the way in which female smoking behaviour is currently socially interpreted.