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It can be very difficult to determine the sex of an iguana until it is at least one year old, and even then, some igs are still hard to sex accurately. Once your ig is about a year old, male sexual characteristics begin to become more prominent. The jowls begin to develop and the femoral pores will begin to enlarge and may develop a waxy substance. Males may also begin to develop fat pads on the back of the head, and you may notice the hemipenal bulges becoming more obvious on the sides of the tail near the vent. As mentioned before, even at a year old it can be hard to determine sex, as some females may show some male-like characteristics and some males may be slow to develop and look more female-like.
It is not absolutely necessary to know the gender of your pet iguana, but it certainly can be useful when you are planning for how to care for your pet. Knowing your iguana's gender can enable you to provide better, gender-specific care for your pet as well as prevent unwanted breeding from occurring if you have multiple iguanas. Your veterinarian can probe your iguana's cloacal vent to determine whether your pet is a boy or a girl. Your veterinarian will be the best person to accurately determine the gender of your iguana, especially if you own a young iguana. Juvenile iguanas are significantly more difficult to correctly sex.